EDUCATION IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE 91 education of the clergy, he insists again and again on the value of a grammatical and rhetorical training for the Christian teacher. " The art of rhetoric," he says, " being available for the enforcing either of truth or falsehood, who will dare to say that truth in the person of its defenders is to take its stand unarmed against false- hood ? For example, that those who are trying to persuade men of what is false are to know how to introduce their subject, so as to put their hearer into a friendly or attentive or teachable frame of mind, while the defenders of the truth are to be ignorant of that art ? Who is such a fool as to think this wise ?"* If those who are called philosophers, and especially the Platonists," he remarks in another passage, " have said aught that is true and in harmony with our faith, we are not only not to shrink from it, but to claim it for our own use from those who have unlawful possession of it.*' Many good and faithful men among the breth- ren have followed the example of the Israelites who borrowed freely from the Egyptians. " Do we not see with what a quantity of gold and silver and garments Cyprian, that most persuasive teacher and most blessed martyr, was loaded when he came out of Egypt ? How much Lactantius brought with him! And Victorinus and Optatus and Hilary, not to speak of living men! And prior to all these, that most faithful servant of God, Moses, had done the same thing; for of him it is written that he was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians."! But while Augustine used all that was suitable for his purpose in the secular learning of the schools in working out his scheme of education for the Christian preacher, he made two modifica- tions which subsequently found a more general application. In the first place, he attempted to derive the content of grammatical and rhetorical instruction from the Scriptures and other Christian writings as well as from the classics. Thus, in discussing the use of the different styles of oratory, he sought to show that with one or two exceptions they all find exemplification in the Scriptures and in the works of Christian teachers like Ambrose and Cyprian. He does not extend his argument to the studies of the ordinary schools, but it is obviously capable of such an extension. There was no reason, apart from the badness of the current translations of the Bible and the absence of religious literature comparable with the classics, why the literary studies of the schools should not have * IV,ii,3. t Il,ri,6o,6x.